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Stephen William Hawking ( Oxford , January 8, 1942 ) was a physicist , mathematician , cosmologist eastrofisico British , among the most important and popular in the world , best known for his studies on blacks holes and the origin dell'universo. Try his ideas most important are the Hawking radiation , the cosmological theory on the beginning boundless universe ( called state of Hartle - Hawking ) , the thermodynamics of holes blacks and participation in the development of numerous physical and astronomical theories with other scientists , as the multiverse , the formation and evolution and galactic cosmic inflation , all theories which he explained with clarity and simplicity in numerous scientific texts didivulgazione for the big pubblico.Pur being condemned to immobility by a motor neuron disease [ 1 ] , perhaps progressive muscular atrophy [ 2 ] - as there are threads that suffers , as it was thought for a long time , and as he says [ 1 ] , from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] - occupied the chair of mathematics lucas iana [ 7 ] at the University of Cambridge ( the same one that was Isaac Newton ) for about thirty years from 1979 to September 30, 2009 [ 8 ] . Hawking was forced by illness to communicate with a speech synthesizer and its public image , aided by the appearance in many documentaries and television programs , has become one of the popular icons of modern science , as has happened to Albert Einstein . [ 9 ] He is a member the Royal Society , the Royal Society of Arts , of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences [ 10 ] . In 2009 he received the Presidential la Medaglia Freedom , the highest honor the United States of America , conferred by president Obama . [ 11 ] [ 12 ]

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