Ernesto Rafael Guevara de la Serna was born in Rosario, Argentina, in 1928 by un'abbiente bourgeois family. First of five children (three boys and two girls), although his father will be a second marriage with the Argentine painter Ana Maria Erra other three children (Ramon, Maria Victoria and Ramiro), Guevara was the son of Ernesto Rafael Guevara Lynch (1901 - 1987), a imprenditoreargentino origins of Basque and Irish, and Celia de la Serna (1906-1965), wealthy bourgeois remote Spanish origins. With regard to the date of birth you have news discordant: the most complete and documented biography, written by Jon Lee Anderson, is cited the statement of the mother, which asserts that the correct date is May 14, while other sources give a date of birth 14 giugno.La birthplace of Ernesto "Che" Guevara in Che Rosario.Il in 1951, in ArgentinaNonostante suffer from asthma (evil that will force Guevara to move to Córdoba and afflict him all his life), he devoted himself to the sport , especially rugby (militated for a short period of time even in the San Isidro), with excellent results. In this context, he acquired the nickname "Fuser", a contraction of "Furious Serna", its typical cry when departed all'attacco.Altra youthful passion was chess, the game he learned from his father. By the age of twelve participated in several local chess tournaments. During adolescence, became interested in poetry, especially that of Pablo Neruda. Like many South Americans of his social and cultural backgrounds, through the years Guevara wrote several poems. He was a voracious reader and eclectic, with interests ranging from adventure classics by Jack London, Jules Verne edEmilio Salgari the essays of Sigmund Freud and Carl Gustav Jung and the philosophical writings of Bertrand Russell. Despite the bourgeois education, his friends were the kids in the slums of Córdoba, and the example that attracted him more Mahatma Gandhi, though Guevara did not believe that the privilege could be destroyed without violence [4] .In late adolescence passionate about photography. Years later, he photographed the archaeological sites visited in his travels. He studied from 1941 in the Colegio Nacional Deán Funes and, in 1948, he enrolled at the University of Buenos Aires to study medicine: after several breaks, graduated July 12, 1953 [5].

South America in motociclettaModifica

The Norton motorcycle used in the shooting of the film Diaries motocicletta.Quando still a student, Guevara spent much time traveling in Latin America. In 1951un his old friend, the biochemist Alberto Granado, suggested that Guevara take a year off from studies in medicine to embark on the journey through South America, which for years had set out to do. Guevara and Alberto departed from the town of Alta Gracia astride unamotocicletta Norton Model 18 to 500 cc of 1939, which Granado had given the nickname "La Poderosa II". Their idea was to spend a few weeks in the San Pablo leper colony in Peru, on the banks of the Amazon, to do volunteer work. Guevara told this trip in the diary "Latinoamericana" (Notas de viaje) from which, in 2004, will be made into the film The Motorcycle Diaries, nominated for various premi.Dopo seeing mass poverty and have been influenced by the readings on Marxist theories concluded that only the revolution could solve the social and economic inequalities in Latin America. His travels provided him with the idea of ​​not seeing South America as a sum of different nations, but as a single entity, for the release of which had required a continental strategy of breath. He began to imagine the possibility of a united Ibero-America without borders, bound by the same culture (mestizo); this idea will assume great importance in his later revolutionary activities. Back in Argentina, he completed his studies as early as possible, decided to continue his travels in South America and Central America.

Il Guatemala

After graduating from medical school at the University of Buenos Aires in 1953, Guevara began to travel, visiting Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras and El Salvador. Reached Guatemala where President Jacobo Arbenz Guzmánguidava a populist government that tried to carry out a social revolution through various reforms, especially land. Around this time Guevara received his famous nickname Che, who was due to the frequent use of the typical Argentine interlayer che.Secondo Jon Lee Anderson, the main contact of Guevara in Guatemala was the Socialist Peruvian Hilda Gadea, who introduced him in circles close to the Arbenz government. Hilda was part of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), a political movement led by Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre.Guevara also took contact with several Cuban exiles linked to Fidel Castro, including Antonio "Ñico" López, who had taken part in the attack of the barracks "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" in Bayamo, and that he would die at Ojo del Toro bridge soon after the landing of the Granma in Cuba. Guevara joined these moncadistas in the sale of religious objects related to the cult of the black Christ and helped two Venezuelan doctors specialists malaria, Vega and Peñalver.La its economic situation was rather precarious and he was forced to pawn some jewelry Hilda. On 15 May 1954 on navesvedese Alfhem, came a load of weapons for the infantry and light artillery brand Škoda, sent by the government Cecoslovacchiacomunista Arbenz. The load was estimated at 2,000 tons by the CIA [6] and in just two tons by Jon Lee Anderson [7] (it is thought, however, that the estimate of Anderson is the result of a printing error [8]). Guevara had gone for a short time in El Salvador to obtain a new visa and then was back in Guatemala. In the meantime, had started the coup of Carlos Castillo Armas, backed by the CIA. [6] The forces opposed to Arbenz were not able to stop the transport of weapons Czech rail. Later, however, reorganized and equipped with air support, gained ground. Guevara went into an armed militia organized by the young communists, but soon returned to his commitments doctors. Following the coup, Guevara had volunteered, but Arbenz counseled supporters with foreign citizenship to leave the country. After Hilda was arrested, Guevara briefly took refuge in the Argentine consulate and then moved inMessico.Il coup against Arbenz, solidified Guevara's opinion that the United States was an imperialist power, which had always opposed the governments willing to reduce economic disparities, endemic in Latin America and in other countries in the developing world. This strengthened his conviction that only socialism achieved through armed struggle and defended by the people in arms, would solve the problems of poor countries.

The Cuban Revolution

Main article: Cuban Revolution cubana.Banconota 3 pesos (front) Shortly after arriving in Mexico, he renewed his friendship with Ñico López and the other Cuban exiles whom he had met in Guatemala. López put him in touch with Raúl Castro. After being released, Fidel Castro arrived in Mexico City and introduced him to Raúl Guevara. After a lively conversation lasted all night, Guevara became convinced that Castro was the revolutionary leader who was looking for and joined the Movement of July 26 that he wanted to overthrow the dictator cubanoFulgencio Batista.Anche whether plans foresaw that Guevara would have been only the doctor's group, participated in military training along with the other members of the movement and, at the end of the course, it was reported by the instructor, Col. Alberto Bayo, as the best of the students. Meanwhile, Hilda Gadea had arrived from Guatemala and resumed his relationship with Guevara. In the summer of 1955 she informed him that she was pregnant and he asked her to get married. The wedding took place August 18, 1955, and their daughter, whom they named Hilda Beatríz, was born February 15 1956.Quando November 25, 1956 the ship Granma left for Cuba from Tuxpan, in the Mexican province of Veracruz, Guevara, l ' Italian Gino Done Paro [9] [10], the Mexican Alfonso and the Dominican Ramon Mejías, Pichirillo said, were the only non-Cuban aboard. On December 2, the landing took place in La Playa de las Coloradas, a swampy area near Niquero. Shortly after they were attacked by the army of Batista and half of them fell in battle or were killed after capture. The twelve survivors, to which were added the peasants met after landing (for a total of seventeen men) [11], regrouped and fled to the mountains of the Sierra Maestra, to conduct guerrilla warfare against regime.Negli last days of December 1958 directed the attack led by his "suicide squad" (a department that held the most risky missions of the revolutionary army) [12] of Santa Clara. It was one of the decisive battles of the revolution, although the series of bloody ambushes, first during the offensive in the Sierra Maestra then on Guise and the entire country of the plains of Cauto probably had a greater military importance. Batista, after becoming aware that his senior officers, like General Cantillo who had met Castro at the abandoned sugar mill "Central America", were concluding a separate peace, fled nellaRepubblica Dominican on 1 January 1959. [13]

The Cuban Government

Ernest GuevaraMinistro of industry and economy of the Republic of February 1961 – mandato23 CubaDurata 1965Capo StatoFidel CastroDati generaliPartito politicoMovimento of 26 July, Communist Party CubanoTitolo of studiolaurea in medicinaProfessionemedico, January 2, 1959 guerriglieroIl the column That entered the capital of Cuba, Havana, and occupied the military fortress ' La Cabaña ', built at the time of Spanish colonization. For the six months in which he held the post of Commandant of the prison oversaw the trials and executions of about 55 [14] military, former officers of Batista's regime, members of the BRAC (Buró de Represión de Actividades Comunistas, repressive Communist activities Office '). During this period he organized a school of literacy for all ex-combatants and met Salvador Allende. Then That will dedicate to the future President of Chile the book guerrilla warfare: ' to Salvador Allende that by other means

Expulsion from Cuba

In December 1964 Guevara traveled to New York as head of the Cuban delegation and gave a speech at the UN General Assembly [21]. On that occasion, appeared on Sunday News program Face the Nation on CBS and met different personalities and representatives of the political groups. Among them, u.s. Senator Eugene McCarthy, members of the group led by Malcolm X and the Canadian radical Michelle Duclos [22] [23]. The 17 December flew aparis, beginning a three-month trip in which he visited the people's Republic of China, Egypt, the Algeria, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Dahomey, Congo-Brazzaville and Tanzania, with stops in Ireland, in Paris and in Algiers, the Praga.Ad February 24, 1965, he made his last public appearance on the international stage, speaking at an economic seminar on ' second afro-Asian solidarity '. In his speech declared: ' In this fight to the death there are no borders.

In Congo

See also: Congo Crisis. during a meeting, which lasted all night between 14 and March 15, 1965, Guevara and Castro agreed on the fact that the Magazine rode the first Cuban military action in Africa. Some sources state that Guevara convinced Castro to lead this venture, while others claim that he was convinced Castro Guevara to undertake the mission, arguing that the social conditions of the different Latin American countries considered as possible ' guerrilla ' fires were not optimal yet [29]; the same Lider Maximo confirmed this second version [30].Guevara in Congo, host in a village localeL ' Cuban operation in the former Belgian Congo was aimed at supporting the Marxist movement of Simba, in favour of Patrice Lumumba. During the African Mission, for a certain period Guevara was assisted by guerrilla leader Laurent-Désiré Kabila, who was helping supporters of Lumumba to conduct.

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